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Our research design involved 100 paired comparisons between lessons in nature vs. their matched, classroom-based counterparts across two different instructors, 10 different topics and weeks, and five different measures of classroom engagement. To give a more fine-grained view of our results, Figure 5 schematically depicts the results for each of the 100 pairs of comparisons. Symbols of different colors and shapes indicate which condition, if any, showed an advantage in subsequent classroom engagement in a given mini-experiment (green checkmark = lesson in nature; purple circle = lesson in the classroom), and the number of symbols indicate the extent of the advantage (no symbols = the conditions differed by less than half a standard deviation; one = the conditions differed by between 0.5 and ≤1 standard deviation; two = between 1 and ≤2 standard deviations; three = over 2 standard deviations).

FIGURE 5

Figure 5 . Differences in classroom engagement after lessons in nature for different classrooms, weeks, and measures. Condition differences in classroom engagement are depicted with symbols. The color and shape denotes the condition which yielded better classroom engagement, for a particular measure, classroom, and week; when the lesson in nature outperformed its paired classroom lesson, there are green checkmark(s); when the lesson in the classroom outperformed its paired nature lesson, there are purple circle(s). The number of symbols (checkmark or circle) represents the extent to which one condition outperformed the other, with one symbol corresponding to a difference between half a standard deviation and a full standard deviation (>0.5 to ≤1), two symbols corresponding to a difference between one and two standard deviations (>1 to ≤2), and three symbols corresponding to a difference of over two standard deviations. When the difference between a lesson in nature vs. the classroom did not exceed half a standard deviation, no symbols are depicted.

Figure 5 thus illustrates the consistency and size of the nature advantage over the entire series of mini-experiments. Of the 100 nature vs. classroom comparisons, the majority of comparisons (61) show an advantage for the lesson in nature, 25 show small or no difference (less than half a standard deviation in either direction), and only 14 show an advantage for the classroom-based lesson. Further, the size of the nature advantage is considerable: in 48 comparisons, the lesson in nature yielded classroom engagement scores a full standard deviation larger than its classroom-based counterpart; in 20 of these 48, the nature advantage was more than two standard deviations.

Visual inspection for differences across measures suggests that, of the four component classroom engagement measures, teacher ratings, redirects, and independent (photo-based) ratings are reasonably sensitive. By contrast, student ratings appear to be a relatively insensitive measure, showing fewer and smaller condition differences than the other measures.

Thus, exposure to nature has been tied to both the antecedents and the consequences of classroom engagement. Additional converging evidence comes from research in educational psychology not focused specifically on greenness. Generally speaking, time spent out of the classroom and in relatively natural outdoor settings is positive. Studies document (a) the rejuvenating effects of recess (e.g., Pellegrini and Davis, 1993 ; Pellegrini et al., 1995 ; Jarrett et al., 1998 ), (b) the positive impacts of students' physical activity—often in schoolyards—on on-task behavior and executive functioning in the classroom ( Mahar, 2011 ; Valentino White Signature Sneakers fDzt3xe8bY
), and (c) the motivational benefits of teacher-led education outside the classroom (EotC)—in schoolyards, museums, and other cultural institutions ( Dettweiler et al., 2015 ; for review see Becker et al., 2017 ) and of garden-based learning ( Skinner et al., 2012 ). All these lines of investigation lend indirect support for the hypothesis that lessons in nature might enhance subsequent classroom engagement.

At the same time, it must be acknowledged that the question here differs importantly from those lines of investigation. This study differs from the research on the benefits of recess and physical activity in that the intervention involves formal instruction—teacher-led, formal lessons, delivered as part of a larger curriculum, with all the rules against student socializing and autonomous activity typical of classroom-based lessons. Similarly, unlike most education outside the classroom (EotC) studies and the study of garden-based learning, this study holds pedagogical approach constant in comparing lessons in nature vs. in the classroom. That is, in most EotC studies, the instruction outside the classroom is designed to take advantage of the setting; as a consequence, the experimental condition differs from the control in two ways—in setting (outside vs. in the classroom) and in pedagogical approach. In this study, pedagogical approach was held constant across conditions; the lessons inside and outside the classroom differed in setting but not instructional approach.

In sum, although it appears no study has directly examined the aftereffects of lessons in nature on classroom engagement, considerable evidence in both environmental psychology and education research points to time spent in natural outdoor settings as having positive impacts. In this study, we hypothesize that lessons in nature have positive, immediate aftereffects on classroom engagement —that is, we expect that when children learn outdoors, their classroom engagement after returning indoors is better than it would have been had they stayed inside the entire time. To test this hypothesis, we compared classroom engagement after a teacher gave her students a lesson in nature vs. after the same teacher gave her students a lesson on the same topic in the classroom (e.g., leaves) in the same week, replicating this comparison across 10 different topics (one topic per week), two classrooms (“classroom a,” with its own teacher, students, and room; and “classroom b,” with another teacher, set of students, and room), and five different measures of classroom engagement.

Either way I’m not going to change who I am, but it would be nice to be able to express it more freely without damaging my social options!

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Angela, What was your other Trigger? Wondering if maybe re-working the way you display your passion is the key to making that trigger work for you and not turn others off? This doesn’t mean stifle your natural passion for all things healthy but maybe living out your passion so as to inspire others rather than talk your passion to (or at) others, if that makes sense. When people *see* your passion at work in your life they become fascinating and inspired with you. And in terms of “getting friends” that are more like you…you will attract what you are! Be what you want to attract. You have so many gifts going for you…live them out, act them out and be who you were meant to be! And I hear ya in terms of being a stay-at-home mom…I have 4 young children (6 and under) and stay home with them as well (in the suburbs). It’s not easy for sure but as Marie says…”everything is figureoutable”!

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A little obnoxious (in good fun) and down right revolutionary.

I loved the point about making not being afraid to polarize folks a bit. I have definitely made that mistake – even quite recently.

Thanks!

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LOVE this episode. Thank you Marie for the free link to the test! My triggers are mystique and passion rendering me “The Subtle Touch” which is so accurate it gave me goosebumps. It makes sense that I have not found true bliss in the corporate world and am not a fan of office drama or politics. I’m intrigued by how this information can help me grow using them to my advantage. I’m getting Sally’s book now!

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Great episode, thanks Marie. What’s my personality trait? Just looked at Sally’s website and I’m (drum roll…) “The Maestro”. I love the sound of that! I’m looking forward to learning more and discovering how to use that trait as a competitive advantage! Nik x

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Wow, I literally burst into tears watching that, finally permission to be myself!! Marie thank you x

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I LOVE this interview, so fascinating! So many great nuggets – 1) Be more of who you are to be successful, 2) Be strategically polarizing, 3) Be the pistachio!

I recently asked for feedback from my friends and clients about my brand and the ONE word that jumped out was PASSION! I’m going to amplify that through my website messages!

As a Personal Branding Career Coach, I’m passionate about helping people differentiate as top talent talent by owning their greatness. Be OUTSTANDING to STAND OUT!

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This is exactly what I needed today! 🙂

300k minus taxes, deductions and your take home 12-13k per month. About 1/2.

In the time it takes for a Ceo to go to the restroom they make that much. Many make in one year what people don’t make in an entire life of working .maybe they deserve it, and glad we live in a land where people can really excel . In my mind 300k is a decent living. No you aren’t flying jets wherever you go, but you can live comfortably and meet your obligations. No Ebenezer 300k is not excessive , it’s middle class.

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johnj says

300k is not excessive, but by definition, it’s not in the “middle”. Not even in the Bay Area. Median family income in the Bay Area is something like $120k. So if you take middle to be +-25% from the median, you won’t have families making $300k in that class. And of course in the majority of the US 300k is top 2%.

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Don’t confuse middle class income with middle-class lifestyle. If you have a middle-class income Of $120,000, it is extremely difficult to afford a medium priced home of $1.5 million and raise kids.

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Seth says

Well, all I have to say is that I’m glad I live in a more sensible part of the country then. Our family of 4 monthly budget is around $6K. And $800-1000 of that goes to charity because it’s a lot of fun to give it away. My truck and the wife’s SUV are both paid for and the combined insurance is less than $1200/yr. We spend less than $3K/yr on gas because work, school and play are all within 10 miles of our house. Our mortgage is less than $100K on a $400K home. We contribute to the retirement accounts, my brokerage account, and the 529 college accounts. We try to plan a nice vacation every year with some side trips here and there within the region, spending between $3-4K. We have a net worth that ranks in the 80th percentile nationally. And oh BTW, last year (2017) was the first time our combined gross income cracked 100K…. So $300K is NOT necessary to live a comfortable middle class lifestyle in the more sensible parts of the country… and the biggest perk… LESS STRESS! That’s priceless.

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